GLOSSARY

Posted By Author on December 20, 2011

GLOSSARY

Note. Words Sri, Shri, Shree, Shrimat, Shriman, Shrimati denote reverence to person.

Suffix ‘ji’, ‘rao’ ‘babu’ or ‘sahib’ is also used to show reverence to person.

Word Dada, Bhau, Bhaiyya, Tai, Bai, Didi are used for elders.

Suffix ‘wala’ denotes belonging to.

For meaning of italic Indian words underlined below see standard dictionary.

Abhishek – a ritual to was idol and offer flowers and sweets chanting mantras

Aam – All

Aap – water, it also means you

Accha – alright or OK

Achaman – taking spoonful of water in palm at the beginning of worship in ritual

Acharya – learned or Guru. A Ph. D. holder is also called Acharya

Adhishthana – foundation

Adhyatma – study of scriptures

Adi Chetana – supreme energy

Adnyatwas – living in recluse

Adwaita - singularity of world and creation or non-dualism

Adya - pioneer

Aggey - coming

Agun – fire, conflagration, blaze

Ahar – intake of food
Ahesan – obligation
Ahimsa

Ahimsak – performer of non-violence

Akhada/Akhara – gymnasium or group of followers of a Sadhu

Akhanda – whole, without break

Akhyan - narration

Akshay Tritiya – third lunar day in summer on which day farmers perform rituals and begin  agricultural operations of land in lunar month of Baishakhi (Vaishakh)

Almirah

Alubhaja – a Bengali fried vegetable of potatoes

Alubonda – see batatawada

Amavasya – a day of dark moon of lunar month

Amishahar – non-vegetarian food

Amrit – nectar

Amrit Bazaar Patrika – The name of the famous newspaper of Ghosh family. Amrit means nectar, bazaar means market, and Patrika means paper

Anand - Joy

Anand Bhavan – name of Motilal Nehru’s house at Allahabad. ‘ House of Joy’

Anar - pomegranate

Anasakta – unattached living

Anasakta Karmayog- a type of Yoga to live and work without attachment

Anguthi – fire of coal in portable furnace to warm up

Anna – a coin denoting sixteenth part of rupee. Obsolete now

Anna Prashan – ceremony of giving first morsel of rice to newborn baby

Apus rice - a kind of rice in Bengal

Ardhangi – Better half

Arey – It is a term in Hindi to call a person in singular term. When junior use this term for seniors it

is taken as an affront.

Arghya – water from palm is poured down in the name of God during rituals for God. See Tarpan

Arthashastra – science of money, economics

Aarti – recitation of hymns in praise of God or Goddess; often sung collectively at home or in Mandir. Daily or on festive occasions

Aryawarta – The Indo-Gangetic plain where Aryans first settled.

Asan - seat

Ashram – A Place to live together in austerity.

Ashramite – member of an Ashram

Ashwin – seventh month of lunar calendar

Ashtanga – eight phases: Yam, Niyam, Assan, Pranayam, Pratyahar, Dhyan, Dharana, and Samadhi

Asti – remnants of bones of a cremated person

Atab – boiled rice

Atharwaveda

Atma, Atman - soul

Aurobindo – It is Bengali pronunciation of Arvind Ghosh former revolutionary and founder of

Pondicherry Ashram.

Avasta - State

Avatar

Ayurveda

Azad Hind Fauj – Free Indian Army

Babu/Baboo

Bachha – infant or child

Badaj – in Punjab some Sadhus and saints can bring dead body back to life

Bade Bhaiyya – elder brother

Badi Ilaichi – big cardamom

Baidyanath (dham) – A place of pilgrimage in Bihar

Baishakhi pooja – a pooja performed in the lunar third month Baishakh after reaping crops

Bajra

Baksheesh

Bal Brhmachari – one practising celibacy and self-control from childhood

Balam Upaswa – develop physical strength

Balbrhmachari – celibate from childhood

Band  - close

Bania

Banjara – a nomadic tribe

Bartaman Bharat – Swami Vivekananda’s work entitled India Today

Basmati – type of fragrant rice with long seeds

Bata – a widely known brand of Shoe Company

Batatawada/Alubonda – a preparation of spicy snack of potatoes dipped in gram flour and fried

Baudi – elder sister in law

Baug – garden

Bazaar

Bedha – Divine wall of defence

Bedi – Seat for Sadhana

Behuda - shameless

Belur – A town near Kolkata where monasteries of the Ramkrishna Mission are situated

Besharam - shameless

Bewakuf - idiot

Bhabi – sister in law

Bhagini – sister

Bhagini Samarpita – Netaji’s eldest daughter from Gita, Chinmayee was named by him as Bhagini

Samarpita meaning ‘sister sacrificer’

Bhagwan -God

Bhagwat – Purana describing life and teaching of Lord Krishna

Bhagwat Gita – contains essence of Hindu philosophy

Bhagya – fate

Bhajias – spicy popular dish of fried gram flour balls
Bhakti -

Bhanamati – a type of witchcraft

Banda – strike or closure

Bhandara – giving free lunch on mass scale

Bhandari – person in charge of storage of grains

Bhang

Bharat

Bharat Milap – exiled Lord Ram embracing brother Bharat

Bharat Ratna –jewel of India, the highest award given by President of India.

Bhatebhat – rice cooked with vegetables in Bengal

Bhavan – Mansion

Bhiksha – to demand and not to beg

Bhillin – a woman of Bhilla tribe

Bhog ceremony – a ceremony to offer food to God

Bhoomi Poojan – Bhoomi means land. Normally pooja of land is performed before any construction.

Bhotia – shephards living at high altitude of the Himalayas

Bhraman - voyage

Bhrugu Sanhita – forecast of every person written by Rishi Bhrugu hundreds of years ago. It is preserved on Talpatra only six persons in India possess and can read it.

Bhulbhulaiya – A type of ghost that misleads path.

Bhushan – To be proud of

Bidi

Bigha

Biryani or Biriani

Boram – type of berries cultivated or wild

Borgi – Maratha raiders

Brahma

Brahma Gath – knot of sacred threads

Brahma Muhurta – early morning auspicious time

Brhaman Sabha – society of Brahmins
Brahmin

Britti – Bengali pronunciation of Vrutti meaning thinking or nature

Buddha Paurnima anniversary of Buddha’s birthday on full moon

Bulbul – a Robin like bird

Byayam ghar – house for exercise

Catori – a metallic bowl used during dining

Chaitanya- vigour

Chakwa/Bhulbhulaiya – Imp that misleads path of persons, a type of amnesia

Chamcham – a Bengali sweet made from spilt milk

Chana – gram, chicken pea

Chandramaulika - Chrysanthemum

Chapati

Chappals - sandals

Chatti – basket

Chaturvarna – four division of Hindus viz. Brahmin, Kshatriya, Vaishya, and Sudra.

Chaukidar – a watchman

Chawl – adjoining row of moderate rooms with common privy

Chela

Chhana – spilt milk

Chidabhas – communion with God

Chiraita – a medicinal plant. It is dipped in drinking water overnight. Next day water acts as eradicator of all stomach infections. It is most bitter

Chitthi – letter

Chota Hazri

Choti/Shendi/Shikha – After tonsuring head a tuft of hair is preserved

Chudamani Yog – An auspicious day that comes once in eighteen years

Chula – mud furnace for cooking

Churi – knife

Computerwalla – One who deals with computers

Copra

Cosmic Tanmatras – Fine parts of Universal elements- water, light, air, sky, and earth

Cothas – a measure of land in city in Bengal

Daan – gift without attachment

Dak

Daksha Yadnya- fire ritual performed by Daksha the father in law of Lord Shiva

Dakshina – paying Brahmins or Pundits in some form or the other

Dakshineshwar – A place on the bank of river Hoogli in Kolkata. It is well known for the Kali temple

where Ramkrishna worshipped

Dalda- it is the brand of synthetic ghee in tin can

Darati- sickle

Daroga – sub-inspector or inspector of police

Darshan divine audience

Dasserah – A festival that ends on tenth day after Pooja festival.

Dash Mahavidya – ten disciplines of knowledge

Datoon – sticks of Babhul or Neem tree to brush teeth

Daukhi – raincoat of reeds

Deh – human body

Deoghar – a place of pilgrimage in Bihar (the same as Baidyanathdham)

Dharma

Dharma Yudha – war for religion

Dharmsala/ Dharmshala

Dhoti

Dhulwad – a day next to festival of Holi (fire worship) performed on full moon of Falgun

Dhyan - meditation

Didi – eldest sister

Diksha - impart ritualized recognition, initiation

Diwali – It is also officially celebrated at white house in USA

Dnyanawapi – Name of mosque at the entrance of Vishwanath temple of Banaras. Dnyan means knowledge and wapi means pervading.

Dnyanyoga – Yoga of knowledge

Doha- Hindi couplet of saints teaching moral or philosophy of life

Dugdha - milk

Durbar

Durga – Hindu goddess

Dwadashi - twelth lunar day of Hindu calendar

Dwaita – duality of world and creation

Ekadashi – eleventh lunar day

Falgun – Last month of lunar calendar that augers onset of summer

Farar – absconding

Fata – bifurcation

Gad or Garh – fort

Gadarjan – pack of fools

Galli – a lane

Gamcha – a checkered towel of thin cotton cloth

Gandgol – problem through mistake

Ganja

Gau - cow

Gath – knot

Gauli - milkman

Gayatri – a mantra daily chanted

Gazal –A form of poetry in Urdu

Ghantaghar – a tower with bell and watch

Gharat – flourmill run on water by diverting channel from river

Ghat

Ghee

Goondas - ruffians

Gorakhpuri boots – Gorakhpur city of UP is famous for spreading religious knowledge. As part of

non-violence shoes made of cloth are prepared and sold all over India. Leather

is taboo in temples.

Gorakshan – guard cows

Gram pulse

Grihasthashram – life of a married person shouldering responsibility of family

Gudhi Padwa  / Chetri Chenda – first day of beginning of lunar calendar in the first month of Chaitra

Guggul – incense

Gujri – market

Gunas – See note below

Gurkhali – Nepal’s God

Gur, Goor

Guru

Gurudeo – religious preceptor

Gurukul – residential school run by Guru at his place. In ancient time sons of kings and elite were sent to Gurukul at the age of five for learning

Gymkhana

Haftas – Instalment of bribe

Hakim

Halva

Hansaraj – a quality of rice. Literal meaning is king of swans

Harfan Maula – always care free and jolly person

Haridasi – lady disciple Miss Elen Waldo of Vivekanand was given name Haridasi meaning servant of God

Harijan

Hartal – strike

Hathayoga – a type of Yoga to prolong life and develop occult magical powers

Hawai – rubber sleepers

Himsa – violence

Hindu Mahasabha – All India party of Hindus.

Holika or Holi – Festival on full Moon of burning and worshiping fire

Indratwa – to achieve position of God of Gods Indra

Indriya – body parts of perception but here it is phallus.

Jaggery

Jago re Jago – wake up, ye wale up

Jai, Jui, Chameli. Mogra – names of vines of jasmine variety with fragrant flowers

Jalpan – to have snacks

Jamadar/Jemadar

Jamindar - Landlord

Jana Garjana – Jana is people, Garjana is roar

Janana – ladies

Janao/Yadnyopavita – sacred threads that high castes Hindus wear across shoulder

Janmalagna – Zodiac sign of one’s birth

Janwar – brute

Japa – repetition of name of God

Jatha – Mob

Jatric/Yatrik - Pilgrim

Jay – victory

Jayanti – birth anniversary

Johar– During defeat in war, Rajput women ‘s act of jumping in fire to save honour

Jugalbandi – kin competition of singers or instrumentalists

Jungle

Jungle pani Nahane – to go for ablution

Kaand - bulb

Kachha – raw

Kachha Muga – raw silk cloth, white

Kachhi – raw, uncooked, unripe of not fried in ghee or oil

Kahani - story

Kaj – work

Kaka - uncle

Kalakand – a sweet made of milk

Kali

Kaliyug – The period of world from creation to its destruction is divided in four parts named as Satya, Dwapar, Treta, and Kali. Presently Kaliyug is going on in which it was augured that dishonesty, strife, war and ultimate destruction of the world will take place.

Kalki – Lord Vishnu’s coming on Earth as Kalki

Kalopasak – Devotees of art.

Kalyan – welfare

Kamasutra- Formulas of sex by Vatsayan

Karheche – of river Karha

Karmarenouncing the world and yet living in society and engage in work with selfless devotion

Kanda – Chapter

Karwa Chauth – A day of ladies ritual of full moon day and fasting

Kasba – Military camp site of Marathas

Kashi – the holy city of Banaras

Kasundi – it is liquid preparation of fermented mustard and water

Kath Bangla – a wooden bungalow or cottage

Katle Aam – massacre enmasse

Katori – a bowl of metal

Kavi – poet

Kavibhushan – a title meaning ‘pride of poets.’

Kaviraj – expert in herbal medicines of Ayurveda

Kayakalpa – a process of bringing form of old body into youthful elegance, rejuvenation

Kesari – Lion. It was the name of sensational newspaper of Tilak published from Pune.

Khadi, Khaddar hand spun cotton cloth

Khansama

Khash Tati – a woven piece of aromatic grass when wet gives cool breeze used in hot summer

Khatag, Shami, Kharpal, Pindalu. Ashok, Bilwa (Bel), Sal, Teak (Tectona grandis)

Khela- game

Khichari – A quick dainty dish of cooked lentils and rice.

Khuda Baksh – a person free of worries like devotee of Allah

Kirtankar – person who gives devotional and religious discourse on hymns sung with music

Kola bagan – banana grove

Kosa – raw silk cloth, golden

Kranti – Revolution.

Krishak Bhavan –mansion of agriculturists built by Dr. Punjabrao Deshmukh for stay of farmers in Delhi.

Krittika Nakshatra – constellation of group of stars named as Krittika

Kshatriya (Khatriya) –

Kumkum – red spot on forehead in Hindu tradition

Kumbha Mela – Largest gathering of worshipers once after twelve years.

Kund – pond normally one near temple. Occasionally have natural hot water.

Kundalini – It is secret plexus called Muldhara situated at bottom of spinal cord where Ida, pingala, and shushumna nerves merge. If this center is activated by yogic method it unfolds tremendous mental energy and wonders.

Kunjar – An elephant

Kushasan – A mat of reeds.

Kusum – flower

Laddus – preparation of sweet like balls

Lakkad Deo – amongst Korku tribal villages of Melghat carved wooden poles are fixed in hut at the entrance or exit of the village or hamlet and worshiped as wooden God

Lal Killa – red fort

Lalten – Mobile kerosine lamp or lantern

Larre Lappa – It was a new bit of music like modern rock and roll. The words of song are meaningless

Lathi charge – baton charge

Lewa – name of Maratha Patil community of Khndesh i.e. Dhulia and Jalgaon district.

litchi- a small fruit

Loo – hot dusty winds of summer in the Gangetic valley

Lota – a small metallic vessel to keep and drink water

Luchha Narayan – a cunning Narayan i.e. God Vishnu, Shri Ramkrishna used this term

Luchi a preparation of Bengali dish
Lungi

Madrasi - Tamilians

Mago parbena – Oh other! It is intolerable

Mahadeo – Lord Shiva

Mahamahopadhyaya – Great Pundit

Mahant – head of a religious sect

Maharaj

Maharshi learned and revered teacher or Guru

Mahasaptami – seventh lunar day of pooja festival

MahashaktimatiGoddess of supreme strength

Mahatma

Mahout

Mahila – ladies

Makar – Zodiac sign of Capricorn

Malgujar – reach landowner or formerly the British gave malgujar, land, forest, and rights to collect revenue.

Mama, Mami – maternal uncle, his wife

Mandawa – it is a tiny type of millet. Normally grown in baser soil, scanty rainfall or in hills. It is a grass like crop

Mandir

Mantra

Mantrik – charmer

Maran evil art of killing a person by sort of remote control

Maran Tantra

Maratha

Masik – Monthly magazine

Math – A place of religious head to live and preach

Matha bhenge – head cracked

Mati – soil

Matka- Gambling

Matka - an earthen pot for storage of drinking water

Maund

Maya

Mazi – boatman

Mere Bhai- my junior brother

Misri – sugar

Misri Churi – a dagger made of sweet sugar, injuring a person with sweet words and behaviour

Mohalla – sector of settlement

Morcha – March normally to protest. Demonstration

Mosambi – a sweet variety of mandarin orange

Mruganakshatra – constellation indicating the onset of monsoon

Mudi – pop-rice

Mufti

Muhurta – auspicious time or date according to almanac

Mujahidin

Muladhara – plexus in lumbar region

Mulmul (Malmal) – muslin cloth, very fine and thin cloth

Mung dal – preparation of mung lentils

Muni – religious head

Munim - accountant

Munshis

Naka – post of goods’ tax collection

Nakshatra – Orbit of the Sun is divided in twelve zones called zodiac. Each sector has a group of stars named particularly as zodiac sign. The Sun remains in each zodiac zone for about twelve to thirteen days. In lunar calendar the orbit of the Sun is divided in twenty-seven parts called Nakshatra. Each sector has a group of stars and particular name. The Moon remains for about a day in each Nakshatra thus totaling to about twelve days in a year and it tallies with the time of zodiac period.

Namaste

Narkachaturdashi – It is the first of Diwali the festival of lamps. It comes on the fourteenth lunar day of month Ashwin. It is celebrated as day on which Lord Krishna annihilated demon Naraksur. Next day is dark moon of Laxmi poojan. Third day is ‘Padwa’ that comes on first lunar day of month Kartik and on second day, also called ‘beej’ or ‘dwitiya’ of Kartik is the fourth day of Diwali called in Bengali Bhratru Dwitiya, in Hindi Bhai Beej, and in Maharashtra as Bhau Beej.

Nar – man

Naulkol – A type of cabbage

Navaratri – nine nights of Pooja festival

Nirayan - astrology based on the Moon

Nishta – implicit faith

Niti - righteousness

Nivedita – Vivekananda named his lady disciple Margaret Nobel from England as Bhagini Nivedita. She devoted life for cause of Vivekananda especially education for women. Meaning of Nivedita is to impart, narrate or teach

Om – Sound symbol of Cosmic reality

Om Mani Padmehum – God Supreme is in the heart like bee in the delicate lotus

Padalanghan – committing mistake of walking ahead of senior

Padhna – read, learn

Padmasan – lotus position in Yoga

Pagla - mad

Paigambar – Messenger of God

Pakha - fan

Pakhandi – exhibitionist

Pakora / Bhajias – a snack

Palak (spinac), Bhindi (ladies finger), Parwal, Baingan (brinjal), Lawki (long gourd), Kumda, (pumpkin) Muli (radish), Gajar (carrot), tomato, Pui (leafy vegetable), Dilpasant, chatur phalli, barbati, Karela (bitter gourd), Alu (potato), Pyaj (onion). Lasan (garlic), Tinda, Gobi (cauliflower), Gadda-Gobi (cabbage}, Matar (peas), Sambar (Coriander), Beet, Seam (beans).

Paan – leaf but normally it means a leaf of vine with lot of assortments munched and mouth and saliva becomes red

Pan Dibba – box to keep betel leaves and accompanying assortments

Pan shop

Panchvati – It is near Nasik where demigod Ram, with brother Laxaman and wife Sita stayed for some time on the bank of river Godavari. Vat means banyan tree and panch means five.

Pandya – Brahmins at religious places render paid service to visiting devotees

Pani – water

Panjika / Panchang - almanac

Pantua – a Bengali sweet

Papaya or papita

Paragana

Paralok – other people, people of other world

Paramhansa – a revered person with highest knowledge

Paratha

Paribhrajak - wnanderer

Parna –  A feast after fasting day.

Parvas – sections of Mahabharata

Parwal. Kartuli - type of vegetables

Pashu - brute

Patanjali Yoga Sutra – tenets of Yoga laid down by Rishi Patanjali

Patel – head of village

Pathan

Patiala peg – slang in army for large peg

Patrika –newspaper or invitation card

Patwari – An Official salaried person who keeps record and collects revenue of a village.

Pauda – Tree

Payash – a sweet dish of milk, rice, copra, sugar etc.

Peth – sector

Petha – sweet made of white pumpkin. Agra is famous for it

Phal - fruit

Phedna – to repay

Pinjra – cage

Pipal, Bakul, Champa, Vaad, Haritaki, Amloki, Neem are names of trees

Pishima – father’s sister

- grandfather

Pithapuli – a Bengali preparation of sweet with copra

Pithle – a semi viscous dish prepared of gram flour popular in Maharashtra

Pooja festival – It is biggest festival of Bengal. On the first day of lunar month of Ashwin it begins. Idols of Kali are installed all over. Pooja is performed for nine days. The tenth day is Vijaya Dashmi when Kali killed demons. It is called Dasserah. Idols are then immersed in tanks or sea or river

Pothi – A book for religious reading.

Prabandha Karyakarini samiti– administrative working committee

Prabuddha Bharat – Swami Vivekanand published magazine with this title. ‘Knowledge of India’

Prajna / Pradnya- intelligence

Pralaya – apocalyptic flood

Pran

Pranav=Om

Pranayama

Prarthana Morcha – Prarthana is prayer and Morcha is march

Prasad – sweet distributed after pooja

Pravrutti – nature of thinking

Prayaschitta – penance

Prayopaweshan – voluntarily fasting unto death

Pronam/ Pranam – to pay obeisance

Pucka/Pukka/Pakka

Puja/Pooja

Pukki – ripe or fried in ghee or oil

Pulao – fried cooked spicy rice

Pundit. Pandit

Punyatithi – death anniversary

Purana – Hindu scriptures mostly giving record of the ancient time

Puranpoli – a preparation of sweet roti that is sandwiched with cooked gram

Purbashram – life before renunciation or recluse

Puri

Pyjamas /Pajamas

Rabadi – by boiling to one-fourth, milk is made semi viscous and sweet with sugar

Raghupati Raghao Rajaram – singing in the name of Lord Rama

Raj
Raja

Rajo, Tamo, Satwa Gunas – Rajo is state of active dynamism’ creativity; Tamo is state of inertia on ignorance; Satwa is unadulterated quality, pure of luminosity and harmony. Gunas are characteristics. See note below.

Rajyoga -

Rakhi – a colored cord tied by sister to brother’s wrist on a full moon day

Raksha – ash of cremated person

Rakshabandhan – see Rakhi. A festival of tying Rakhi by sister to brother on the full moon day

Ramnawmi – Festival of birth anniversary of Lord Rama on ninth lunar day of Chaitra

Ramrajya – a Government like kingdom of Lord Rama in which justice, equality, absence of poverty ruled. To make people affluent

Rana

Rani

Rasmalai - Bengali sweet

Rasoi – cooked food

Rassogulla – a Bengali sweet

Razzakar – army of Mohammedan fanatics

Ricksha /Rickshaw

Rigveda

Ringles – reeds

Rishi

Roti

Rudraksh – brown colored dried fruits of the Himalayan trees. They are tied on hand, arm or put around neck by religious people to bring peace and detachment

Saam, Daam, Dand, Bhed – steps to deal with enemy mentioned by Kautilya. It means use negotiation, give bribe, punish, and lastly kill.

Sabbal/ Pahar – an iron rod to dig soil or break rock

Sadachar Samiti – a committee formed to eradicate corruption and to imbibe clean and honest behaviour

Sadhak – student, learner, devotee

Sadhana – rigourous pursuit

Sadhika – a lady devotee

Sadhu –

Safa – turban

Sagar - sea

Sahakar Maharshi- great man in co-operative movement

Sahib (Saheb)

Sal – A tree that is profuse in forests of Madhya Pradesh

Sama. Dam, Danda Bhed – reconciliatory dialogue. Bribe, Punishment, Exterminate

Samadhi – to become one with God

Samajwadi – socialism

Samaveda

Samosa

Samyawad - communism

Sanatanist – Conservative

Sandesh – a type of Bengali sweet

Sangam – confluence

Sankranti – day when the Sun enters zodiac sign of Capricorn viz. Makar. Presently its date is always fixed on 14th January. It shifts by one day every two hundred years.

Sanskar – imbibe or imbibed culture or imbibed values

Sanskritik Mandal – cultural association

Santan Sangh – progeny association

Sanyas – to renounce worldly life

Sanyasi – Person who has renounced the world.

Sarasangha Chalak – chief of Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh, RSS

Sari

Sarobar / Sarovar – lake

Sarwapitru Moksha Amavasya – dark moon of sixth month Bhadrapad of lunar calendar on which day food and water is offered to related and departed ancestors

Satwik – simple, straight, honest, of Godly nature
Satya – truth
Satyagraha

Satyameva Jayate – Truth alone wins

Savilkalpa Samadhi – concentration on single thought about God

Sayan - astrology based on the Sun as center

Seer - a measure

Seth – rich businessman or employer

Shabanam – a bag made of cotton that hangs on shoulder.

Shadripus – six weaknesses viz. sex, anger, fear, ego, greed, and hatred

Shaitani – Devilish act

Shakha – branch

Shakta

Shakti

Shamiana

Sanatanist - Conservative

Sharada Udyog MandirSharada is name of Goddess, Udyog means industry,

Shasha – cucumber

Shastri – Pundit

Shatak – century, hundred

Shavasan – Yogic pose like a dead body

Shawl

Shayeri – Urdu poetry

Sher- a poetic couplet in Urdu language

Shesh - end

Shetkari Andolan- Peasants Movement

Shikari

Shikkha/Shiksha – education

Shishya - disciple

Shivaratri – a festive fasting day of night of Lord Shiva, Bhang is taken as Lord’s drink

ShlokaSanskrit couplets or quadrates

Shodhak – finder or discoverer

Shradha – faith, even blind faith

Shradha – ritual for a dead person

Shringar – make up with ornaments

Sudra Shudra – lowest or mean class of society amongst Hindus

Shunun – in Bengali it means listen

Shushuptawastha – state of sub consciousness

Siddha - sanctified

Siddhi

Siddhistu Sookari Vishta – magic powers are like pig’s excreta

Sigri – mobile furnace of coal

Sinaha – lion

Sirdar/Sardar

Smarak – memorial

Stitapradnya – a person living a detached life

Subadar/Subhedar – Head of Subah or region. It is now used for head constable or

Supari – betel nut

NCO in army.

Sudarshan Chakra – Lord Vishnu’s destructive weapon of serrated disc

Sukar – pig

Sukshma Deh – astral body

Suryarashmi/Surjarashmi – taking Sun rays in eyes

Surya Sanhita

Swadeshi – indigenously manufactured or made in India.

Swadharma – self-tenets of ethics

Swami
Swaraj

Tadpatri – rain proof sheet of resin cloth

Talpatra – dry leaves of ‘tal’ tree used for writing in ancient time when paper was not discovered.

Tama, Satwik. Raja

Tamasha

Tanamatra

Tanpora – Indian musical instrument

Tantra Vidya- Vidya means knowledge or study

Tantric

Tantric Sadhana – study of ‘Tantra

Tapa – period of twelve years

Tapa – period of twelve years

Tapashcharya – laborious pursuit for long period

Tapaswi – a religious devotee of long standing

Tapasya – laborious devotion for long period

Tapowan – Forest where sages perform Tapashcharya

Tarbabu – telegraph clerk

Tarpan –water from palm is poured down as a mark of vow and commitment

Tatwa – principle, tenet, element

Teen Murti – Teen mean three and murti means idols. This was the residential place of Jawaharlal Nehru in Delhi and after his demise it is converted into museum.

Terai/Tarai

Thana

Tilak Smarak MandirTilak Memorial Hall. Though Mandir means temple it also connotes sanctified place

Tithis – dates of lunar month

Tola – A type of weight to measure gold.12 grams.

Tonga

Trayodashi, Paurnima thirteenth, and full moon day of lunar month

Trikon Mudra – a Yogic posture with hands in triangular position

Triveni – merger of three

Tyagach – sacrifice

Unani – Arabic form of medicines

Uparati - repentance

Upasaka - devotee

Upeksha - neglect

Utshrunkhalata – levity

Uttarakhand – north region, name of province of the Himalayas.

Vairagya – renouncing worldly life

Vaishya

Vajra – Lord Indra’s weapon

Vanaprasthashram – leaving everything to children and live with wife in solitude of forest

Vandemataram – ‘Salute to mother India’. It was war cry of revolutionaries and freedom fighters.

Varna – four divisions of Hindu society

Varnashram Dharma – Hindu religion classified in four classes

Veda
Vedanta
Vedantic

Vida – to give present in return

Vidya Bhavan - mansion for learning

Vishwa – world, universe

Vishwa Kalyan –to do good to the world

Vishwa Kosh – encyclopedia of world in Marathi language

Vishwas – trust, belief, firm reliance, faith

Vishta – excreta

Vrata – firm adoption of

Vritti/Britti – nature of thinking

Vyakhyanmala - lecture series

Wad - debate

Wada - mansion

Waksiddha – expert debater

Worali Matka – gambling on probability of number that is conducted daily from                                 Warkha – thinnest silver foil

Yadnya – ritual of fire

Yajurveda

Yoga

Yogi

Yogic Nidra – Yogic sleep

Yoni – cycle of rebirth in different forms of life as living being

Zad – Tree

Zula – a swing

Note: Vedantist philosophers describe Maya as the power of Brahman, the Supreme God, dwelling in Brahman itself and non-different from it. Maya is regarded as beginningless, because no beginning in time can be postulated; but Maya disappears when one obtains the direct knowledge of Brahman. It is compounded of three Gunas that are its very stuff. The three Gunas are like the three strands of rope of Maya with which human beings become bound to the phenomenal world. Gunas are present in varying degrees in all objects, gross and subtle, including the mind, intellect, and ego. The Gunas are known as Rajas (Rajo). Tamas (Tamo), and Satwa. Rajas and Tamas are having opposite characteristics, while Satwa strikes a balance between two. The principal trait of Rajas is energy that manifests in ceaseless activity. Rajas creates attachment and suffering. Tamas acts itself as inactivity, Dullness, inadvertence, and stupidity. It is the mother of delusion and represents the veiling-power of Maya. Satwa manifests itself as the spiritual qualities, and is characterized by balance. Anyone attached to Gunas is not free. Tanamatras are the subtle states of five elements Viz. Mind, Intellect, Ego, the senses, and the objects of senses. All the good and evil actions in the world are the result of Gunas and Tanamatras. All these entities evolve and develop from the Prakrti or lower nature of God. Prakrti belongs to God and under His direction she carries on her function of creation, multiplication, and destruction of the world. God is the cause and substratum of all the evolutes of the three modes of Prakrti, in reality neither they do not exist in Him nor He in them. He is beyond Gunas and ever exists in his  own being. Creation is the result of interaction between Maya and Prakrti.

Swami Nikhilanand and Ranganathananda have explained Gita dexterously so that a common man could understand Gita. Mr. L.K. Advani in his autobiography has given vivid description of Swami Ranganathananda of Ramakrishna Mission.

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