Posted By Author on December 21, 2011
ANNEXURE – I
Paramount events in the life of Subhash Chandra Bose
January 1897 to January 1977.
1897 Born on Saturday the 23rd January at Cuttack in a Bengali family of lawyer Sri Jankinath Bose.
1902-08 Primary education in a missionary school meant for Europeans and Anglo-Indians. P.E. School.
1909 Joined Revenshaw Collegiate School, Cuttack. Learnt Bengali and Sanskrit. He developed hobby of Gardening. Headmaster Sri Beni Madhao Das became his ideal. Learnt from him love for nature and perform contemplation. He came across work of Swami Ramkrishna and Swami Vivekanand. They became ideal of his life. Renunciation, character building, purity, and service to suffering humanity became goal of his life. Studied scriptures: Vedas, Upanishadas, Puranas, Gita, Ramayana, Mahabharata, Patanjali Yoga Sutra, Yoga Vasishta, Shankaracharya’s Sankhya and started concentration and taking Sunrays in eyes. Searched Guru. Ran after Sadhus. Did first social service in a village.
1912 Received first political impetus after the visit of King George V.
1913 Stood second in merit in the whole of Bengal at matriculation examination. Errands to Haridwar and Banaras in pursuit of Yoga and religion. Lived in saffron dress. Aurobindo Ghosh became his ideal.
1914 Hunt for Guru at Banaras, Haridwar, Mathura, and Vrundawan proved fruitless. Rude and insulting behaviour of the British, bitter and frustrating experience at Presidency College, and outbreak of World War-I left a scar on his psyche.
1915 Passed intermediate examination in first division.
1916 Fir degree examination took Honors course in Philosophy.
1917 Owing to attack on Prof. Otten he was expelled from the University. Came back to home in Cuttack and devoted himself in social service tending patients in rural areas suffering from Cholera and small pox. Studied dream analysis, self-analysis, and practiced conquering and sublimation of sex instinct.
Returned to Calcutta. Attempted to recruit in the 49th Bengal Regiment Rejected for bad eyesight. Admission tried in Bangabhashi College but for want of Honours course joined third year in Scottish Church College. In rustication lost two years. Learnt Bible. Participated in Philosophical Society. Joined university unit of the Indian Territorial Army. First military training in life, and a year of soldiering.
1918 Engrossed in study.
1919 Passed B.A. Hons. Secured First Class and second in order of merit. Left M.A. course in psychology On 15th Sept sailed to England for ICS examination. Admitted I Cambridge I November. Subjects offered – Economics, Philosophy, Political Science, Geography with cartography, Sanskrit, English Composition, English History, Modern European History, and English law.
1920 In July appeared for ICS Examination. Stood fourth in merit in Sept.
1921 On 26th January wrote letter to father to give up Government service. Decided to devote life to Teaching and Journalism. On 28th April sent resignation of ICS.
1921-23 Political apprenticeship under C.R. Das. Became Principal of National College, Editor of National Newspaper ‘Swaraj’. Became Executive Member of Bengal Provincial Congress Committee. Agitation against visit of Prince of Wales. Leader of Congress Volunteers Corpse. Civil disobedience. First gaol sentence. First political speech on ‘ Sincere work and patient suffering ‘ In charge of Food Relief Work. Worked as Secretary of Congress President C.R. Das. Formation of Swaraj Party of extremists.
1924 C.R. Das elected Mayor of Calcutta and S.C. Bose was elected as Chief Executive Officer of the corporation in October. Interned in Alipore jail on doubts of terrorism. Transferred to Great Fort of Mandalay in Burma. While in jail was nominated in January to the Bengal Legislative Assembly.
1926 Released from Burma. C.R. Das, his political Guru, was dead. Health deteriorated.
1927 He became natural leader of Bengal but in bad health. He refused to go to Switzerland directly from Burma. Elected as Chairman of the Bengal Provincial Congress Committee. Got busy in political reconstruction.
1929 Opposed Dominion Status.
1930 Entered full-scale civil disobedience. Arrested on his birth day 23rd Jan. for leading Independence procession. Sent for one year in jail. Went on hunger strike against shabby treatment by authorities. Released. Became Mayor of Calcutta on Sept. 25th. Became chairman of All India Trade Union Congress. (AITUC)
1931 Interened for seven days for entering the forbidden area. Again on 26th Jan. leading procession on ‘Independence Day’. Released under Gandhi-Irwin pact after forty-five days.
1932 Arrested in Jan. in nationwide hunt of Congressmen. Became gravely ill in Dec.
1933 22nd Feb. released from jail and sent to Europe for treatment in Dr. Furth’s sanatorium in Vienna. Met Vithalbhai Patel in Vienna. Criticised Gandhi as an old useless piece of furniture for withdrawing Civil Disobedience Campaign. Decided war as the only solution for independence. Received Russian invitation for revolutionary technique. Did not go. He conducted a series of visits to Berlin, Rome, Prague, Warsaw, Istanbul, Belgrade, and Bucharest. He repeated visits to European countries in next two years.
1934 Published ‘The Indian Struggle’. Got fifty pounds for that. The book banned I India. In December flew to India to see his dying father but reached late.
1935 Had to return to Europe due to restriction on Jan. 10th. Vithalbhai Patel died. He bequeathed all his property to Bose but later Vallabhbhai Patel won the suit against Bose. Visited European countries. Met Jawaharlal Nehru many times who was attending his wife Kamla at Vienna and Badenweir in the Black Forest in Germany. Attended her funeral.
1936 Made political contacts with Dr. Benes, De Valera, Adolf Hitler, Ribbentrop, Romain Rolland, and Mustafa Kemal Pasha. Returned to India on insistence of Jawaharlal Nehru. Reached Bombay on 8th April and was immediately interned in brother’s house in Darjeeling.
1937 Released on March 17th. Under Home Rule Congress formed ministries in seven provinces. Bose rested with Dharmaveers in the hills.
1938 Conferred with Gandhiji and reconciled. Accepted nomination as Congress President. Spent six weeks at Badgastein. Completed his half done autobiography ‘An Indian Pilgrim’ in ten days. Emilie Schenkl was his secretary. Visited England. Clement Attlee, Ernest Bevin, Sir Stafford Cripps welcomed him. Reception given at Dorchester. He met Zetland, Lord Halifax, George Lansbury, Harold Laski, Dr. Ivor Jennings, Prof.JBS Haldane Prof. GDH Cole, and Prof Gilbert Murray of Oxford. Met Mussolini secretly On his birthday on 23rd Jan. reached Karachi. Presided over Haripura Congress Session at Vithal Nagar in Gujarath.
1939 Contested election for second time President of Congress against the wishes of Mahatma Gandhi and defeated his candidate Pattabhi Sitaramaiyya. Gandhi took it as his own defeat. He told all members of the CWC to resign. The Congress was on the verge of break-up and hence Bose resigned and formed extremists’ ‘Forward Block’ within the Congress at Ramgarh. At the instance of Gandhi Bose was suspended from Congress for three years. As prophesised by him the Second World War began. Gandhi wanted to help the British and Bose did not want to loose the golden opportunity to gain independence.
1940 Congress conference was at Ramgarh in Behar. Bose held ‘Anti Compromise Conference’ at the same time and the same place. Gave message to the nation to start struggle for independence without break. On July 2nd Bose was arrested for popular demonstration to remove Holwell Monument built in memory of victims (1857) of Black Hole. He was arrested under Defence of India Act. In jail he went on fast unto death on 29th November and after six days was released and interned in his house at Elgin Road , Calcutta.
1941 26th January was the date fixed for his trial of sedition. However on the night of 16th January i.e. early morning of 17th he escaped by car in the garb of Muslim insurance agent ‘Mohd. Ziauddin’ Reached Peshawar by train. Bhagatram Talwar disguised as ‘Rahmat Khan’ and he as dumb and deaf Pathan crossed Indian border afoot and reached Kabul. Stayed at Uttamchand Malhotra for 46 days. Tried to contact Russian embassy but in vain. Contacted Italian Legation and secured passport in the name of ‘ Orlando Mazzotta’ Secured transit visa of Russia and by land route reached Moscow. From there flew to Berlin on 28th March.
1942 By January created two units of Indian Legion out of Indian Prisoners of War (POW) Set up India Independence League, Free India Centre, and Azad Hind Radio in Germany by December. Formed National Planning Committee to study social and economic problems of Free India. Introduced greeting slogan ‘Jai Hind’. Opened Free India Centers in Rome and Paris on 20th Feb. First speech broadcasted to Indians to fight against the British. Declared war against England On March 13th. Proclamation to the Indian people. Japanese proposal for tripartite declaration on India and invited Bose. Convinced Mussolini to consider proposal on May 5th. Mussolini sent telegram to Hitler favoring declaration in spite of Obersalzburg decision of 29th April. Bose met Hitler on29th. May for declaration but he did yield. He accepted leadership of three million Indians in the Far East but could reach only after a year. Opened two more radio stations. Worked hard for consolidation and increase of Indian Legion. He fixed tricolor flag with springing tiger. He declared National Anthem a Tagore’s composition ‘ Jan Man Gan’ He consented to title ‘Netaji’ conferred by all members of the Indian Legion. Legion Day was celebrated on 26th January. He selected Abid Hasan and Swami as chief assistants. He regarded German grant of 4000 pounds per month as loan to India. Fraulein Emilie Schenkl was his private secretary since 1934. Secretly got married to her. Birth of daughter ‘Anita’ in Sept. Christmas with family in Vienna.
1943 Visited Paris. Celebrated 26th January as Independence Day. On February 8th left by U boat- submarine from Keil for Japan. Only Abid Hasan accompanied him. On April 28th reached Indian Ocean and was transferred to Japanese Submarine Reached Sabang in Indonesia and then flew to Tokyo on 13th June. Gen. Tojo welcomed him on 13th June. He took charge of INA from and leadership of India IIL from Rasbehari Basu. On June 19th addressed Press Conference and gave speech on radio. Reached Singapore on 2nd July. Gave battle cry ‘ Chalo Delhi’ (On to Delhi –K. It was like German war cry on to Paris)) to INA. On 5th July INA gave guard of honor to Gen. Tojo, the Prime Minster of Japan.
In August attended Burmese Independence Day in Rangoon. Visited Bangkok and Saigon. Sent representatives to collect men and money to Burma, Siam, Indonesia, and China. Assumed Supreme Command of INA on 8th August. Established H.Q. Formed Subhash Regiment, Bahadur Front for espionage and sabotage, Intelligence Group, and Reinforcement Group. Spy Department was under Swami. Played badminton daily and smoked heavily. Kept pets. On 21st August proclaimed provisional Government of Azad Hind at Singapore. He Himself became Head of State, Prime Minister, and Minister for War and Foreign Affairs. On 23rd October declared war on Britain and U.S.A. The Provisional Government of free India was recognized by Japan. Burma, Croatia, Germany, Italy, Philippines, Nanking, and Manchukuo. Collected millions of dollars to run INA. On 25th October attended Great East Asia Conference in. Tokyo. On 1st November met Gen. Tojo and secured declaration that liberated Indian Territory will be administered by the Provisional Government of India. Andaman and Nicobar islands were handed over to Bose. Secured status of Allied Army for INA from Japan. Raised two more Divisions. By 18th November. Visited Nanking, Shanghai, Manila., and Saigon to receive State Reception. Called on Field Marshal Terauchi and reached Singapore on 25th Nov. On 29th went to Indonesia for five days visit. Visited Andaman Island and renamed Shahid (Martyr) and Swaraj (Self-ruled) Islands.
1944 On Jan. 7th Netaji shifted his H.Q. from Singapore to Rangoon. On 4th Feb. offensive in Arakan was launched. Formed Azad Hind Dal for Civil Administration of liberated territory. INA crossed the Indian border on March 19th. Imphal campaign was launched on 7th April. H.Q. was shifted to border near Mandalay. Imphal was captured on 21st April. The greatest mistake was not to capture Dimapur that was just forty miles from Kohima. Dimapur was last railway station and ammunition and food depot of the British. Due to internal conflict Gen. Sato wasted one month sitting idle on the hill looking over Kohima. Early onset of Monsoon disrupted the supply line. Starvation and death ruled INA. Retreat began and assembled in north Burma. Further retreat continued.
1945 In March Japanese started retreat. Faced reverses. On 24 th April Bose left Burma. INA surrendered. Netaji arched afoot with girls of Rani Zansi regiment from Rangoon to Bangkok. Escaped death many time. On 13th August reached Singapore. Conferred with INA officers. Three courses left before him: (a) whether to surrender (b) To go to Russia and continue struggle (c) To go in search of ‘Unknown’, his ambition since childhood. On 10th Russia declared war against Japan and invaded Manchuria. On 15th August Radio Tokyo had to announce surrender as on 6th and 9th August Hiroshima and Nagasaki were ravaged by atom bomb. On 16th August Cabinet discussed Netaji’s Future course. All reached Bangkok and conferred with Maj. Gen. Bhonsle. On 17th August by two planes reached Saigon. At 5.30 P.M. accompanied by Col. Habibur Rahman flew by two engine Sally bomber. Destination of the plane was not known. It was said the destination was Tokyo via Dairen in Manchuria. Last men to see him off were S.A. Ayer, Deb Nath Das, Gulzara Singh. Bid Hasan, and Pritam Singh who is the only survivor today. At night Bose accompanied with Gen. Shedie are said to have taken halt at Tourane in French-Indochina that is Vietnam. Flight resumed in early morning and reached Taihoku in Formosa (Taiwan) in noon and took off at 2.30 P.M. Immediately one engine exploded and plane dashed to ground killing Bose and Shedie. Rahman survived with minor burn injuries to hand. Bose died at 8 P.M. in Army hospital. Funeral performed at Taihoku crematorium on 29th August. Ashes were flown to Tokyo and installed in Renkoji temple on 14th Sept. This is version of books and two official inquiries. JMCI differed.
Naked Truth: From Saigon Netaji landed at Canton. Gen. Hata Chief of Japanese Army in China received him and managed his escape to Tibet as per his wish. When he reached Tibet safely news of his death on 18th August was declared to the world on 23rd August.